Evidence resource page: Law enforcement and the criminal justice system

This resource page is part of the HPIO Addiction Evidence Project and covers topics relevant to two components of the comprehensive policy response to addiction framework: Law enforcement and the criminal justice system. Click here to view other phases of the Addiction Evidence Project.

The resources on this page are organized based on the Sequential Intercept Model, a conceptual framework used in communities across the country as a strategic planning tool to improve cross-system collaborations and reduce the involvement of people with mental illness and substance use disorders in the justice system. The Sequential Intercept Model gives stakeholders across sectors a common framework for identifying key issues and partners in each phase of the criminal justice system.

The Sequential Intercept Model

Source: Policy Research Associates, 2018


This resource page contains the following sections:

Law enforcement

  • Community services (intercept 0): Including pre-arrest diversion initiatives, such as Quick Response Teams
  • Law enforcement: Crisis de-escalation (intercept 1): Including crisis intervention teams (CIT) and crisis centers
  • Drug supply disruption and reduction (not typically included in the Sequential Intercept Model): Including interdiction of illicit drugs and prevention of prescription drug diversion

 Criminal justice system

  • Initial detention and initial court hearings (intercept 2): Including screening for mental and substance use disorders and pretrial diversion
  • Jails and courts (intercept 3): Including sentencing reform, specialized dockets (such as drug courts) and addiction treatment in prisons and jails
  • Reentry (intercept 4): Including transition planning, health insurance coverage and efforts to connect formerly incarcerated people with services and supports in their communities, such as addiction treatment, recovery supports and harm reduction methods
  • Community corrections (intercept 5): Including reducing recidivism, probation and parole reform and access to recovery supports, health insurance coverage, housing and employment

Resources

This resource page prioritizes three types of credible guidance on the actions that law enforcement and criminal justice stakeholders are taking to reduce addiction.

  • Expert consensus statements and guidelines: Recommendations developed by groups of experts convened by a federal agency, professional association or other credible law enforcement or criminal justice organization. In most cases, these expert panels used a rigorous and systematic process to compile and evaluate peer-reviewed research evidence and translate research findings into specific implications for policy and practice.
  • Evidence registries: Searchable databases or other user-friendly compilations of evidence-based policies and programs. These registries use specific screening criteria to identify effective strategies and/or rate strategies on the strength of their available evidence of effectiveness.
  • Model policies: Model legislation developed by experts.

When these resources are not available, this page also includes research articles, federal government resources and academic and professional reports.


Law enforcement

Community services (intercept 0)

Read more

Louisville-Jefferson County Metro Government, 2018 

The Louisville Metro Law Enforcement Assisted Diversion (LEAD) Program 

A pre-booking, community-based program to divert individuals suspected of committing low-level drug-related offenses to case management and supportive services instead of jail and prosecution in Louisville, KY. 


Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, 2018

Ten Standards of Care: Policing and The Opioid Crisis

Expert consensus statement that includes recommended standards of care for Police Departments and their partners, including health agencies, in order to impact the opioid crisis in communities.


The National Center for Addiction and Substance Abuse, 2017

Ending the Opioid Crisis: A Practical Guide for State Policymakers

Specific recommendations for state policymakers to prevent opioid misuse and addiction, reduce overdose deaths, improve addiction treatment and improve addiction care in the criminal justice system, including expanding the role of law enforcement in addiction care.


Washington State Institute for Public Policy

Washington State Institute for Public Policy Benefit-Cost Results

Literature reviews and benefit-cost analyses of a wide variety of health and human services programs, including pre-arrest police diversion for individuals with mental illness.

Other community services include community behavioral health treatment and outreach to at-risk populations, such as people who inject drugs and people experiencing homelessness. For more resources on community-based addiction treatment, see the Addiction Evidence Project resource page on prevention, treatment and recovery.

Law enforcement: Crisis de-escalation (intercept 1)

Read more

Crisis de-escalation and Crisis intervention teams (CIT)

Criminology and Public Policy, 2020

Does de-escalation training work? A systematic review and call for evidence in police use-of-force reform

The findings of a systematic review on the effectiveness de-escalation training for police. A subscription or fee is required to obtain the full text of the article.


Substance Abuse and Mental Health Administration, 2018

Crisis Intervention Team (CIT) Methods for Using Data to Inform Practice: A Step-by-Step Guide

Report that advises local law enforcement systems on how to use data to implement Crisis Intervention Team programs that can improve the safety and effectiveness of law enforcement response to people experiencing behavioral health crises.


International Association of Chiefs of Police, 2018

Responding to Persons Experiencing a Mental Health Crisis

Model policy and related report that provides guidance to law enforcement officers when responding to or encountering persons experiencing a mental health crisis, as well as tools for law enforcement executives to tailor the model policy to the requirements and circumstances of their community and their law enforcement agency.


The President’s Task Force on 21st Century Policing, 2015

Final Report of the President’s Task Force on 21st Century Policing

Task force report containing best policing practices and recommendations on how those practices can promote effective crime reduction while building public trust within six categories: building trust and legitimacy, policy and oversight, technology and social media, community policing and crime reduction, training and education, and officer wellness and safety.


Crisis centers

Washington State Institute for Public Policy

Washington State Institute for Public Policy Benefit-Cost Results

Literature reviews and benefit cost analyses of a wide variety of health and human services programs, including mobile crisis response.

Drug supply disruption and reduction

Read more

Prescription drug diversion

The President’s Task Force on 21st Century Policing, 2015

Final Report of the President’s Task Force on 21st Century Policing

Task force report containing best policing practices and offer recommendations on how those practices can promote effective crime reduction while building public trust within six categories: building trust and legitimacy, policy and oversight, technology and social media, community policing and crime reduction, training and education, and officer wellness and safety.


International Association of Chiefs of Police and George Mason University, 2016

An Evidence-Assessment of the Recommendations of the President’s Task Force on 21st Century Policing — Implementation and Research Priorities

Assessment of the recommendations from the “Final Report of the President’s Task Force on 21st Century Policing” that highlights which recommendations are established best practices and which are innovations that have not yet been adequately researched.


U.S. Drug Enforcement Administration, 2015

DEA 360 Strategy

DEA’s 360 Strategy takes a three-pronged approach to combating opioid use through: (1) coordinated Law Enforcement actions against drug cartels and heroin traffickers in specific communities; (2) Diversion Control enforcement actions against DEA registrants operating outside the law and long-term engagement with pharmaceutical drug manufacturers, wholesalers, pharmacies, and practitioners; and (3) Community Outreach through local partnerships that empower communities to take back affected neighborhoods after enforcement actions and prevent the same problems from cropping up again.


National Institute of Justice

Crime Solutions

Searchable database of evidence-based policies and programs. Rates strength of evidence of effectiveness (effective, promising or no effects). Includes relevant topics such as corrections and reentry, courts, crime and crime prevention, drugs and substance abuse, juveniles and law enforcement.


The National Center for Addiction and Substance Abuse, 2017

Ending the Opioid Crisis: A Practical Guide for State Policymakers

Specific recommendations for state policymakers to prevent opioid misuse and addiction, including recommendations for Prescription Drug Take-Back Programs.


National Alliance for Model State Drug Laws

Model Prescription Accountability Act

Model policy intended to provide new technological solutions to the problem of preventing and controlling the diversion and abuse of prescription drugs whose therapeutic benefits are accompanied by psychoactive effects.


Interdiction of illicit drugs

International Journal of Drug Policy, 2011

Effect of drug law enforcement on drug market violence: a systematic review

The findings of systematic review on the effectiveness of drug law enforcement to reduce drug market violence. A subscription or fee is required to obtain the full text of the article.


The President’s Task Force on 21st Century Policing, 2015

Final Report of the President’s Task Force on 21st Century Policing

Task force report containing best policing practices and recommendations on how those practices can promote effective crime reduction while building public trust within six categories: building trust and legitimacy, policy and oversight, technology and social media, community policing and crime reduction, training and education, and officer wellness and safety.


International Association of Chiefs of Police and George Mason University, 2016

An Evidence-Assessment of the Recommendations of the President’s Task Force on 21st Century Policing — Implementation and Research Priorities

Assessment of the recommendations from the “Final Report of the President’s Task Force on 21st Century Policing” that highlights which recommendations are established best practices and which are innovations that have not yet been adequately researched.


The President’s Commission on Combating Drug Addiction and The Opioid Crisis, 2017

Final Report of the President’s Commission on Combating Drug Addiction and The Opioid Crisis

Report that provides recommendations to the President on ways to combat the addiction crisis, including recommendations related to reducing the illicit drug supply, expanding drug courts and investing in evidence-based addiction treatment for communities and within the criminal justice system.


Rocky Mountain High Intensity Drug Trafficking Area, 2016

The Legalization of Marijuana in Colorado: The Impact

Report with data and information related to the impact of recreational marijuana legalization in Colorado from 2013-2016, including the increase in marijuana-impaired driving and related injuries and deaths.


National Institute of Justice

Crime Solutions

Searchable database of evidence-based policies and programs. Rates strength of evidence of effectiveness (effective, promising or no effects). Includes relevant topics such as corrections and reentry, courts, crime and crime prevention, drugs and substance abuse, juveniles and law enforcement.


University of Cincinnati Policing Institute, 2007

Understanding Best Search and Seizure Practices, Final Report

Research funded by the Ohio Office of Criminal Justice Services and the Ohio State Highway Patrol (OSHP) that analyzes OSHP patterns and practices related to search and seizure activities during traffic stops and identifies the “best practices” of OSHP troopers in an effort to better understand racial/ethnic disparities in OSHP searches and seizures.


National Alliance for Model State Drug Laws

Model State Chemical Control Act

Model policy intended to control access to chemicals, prevent chemical diversion and curb the production of illicit drugs.


National Alliance for Model State Drug Laws

Uniform Controlled Substances Act (UCSA) (1990) Controlled Substance Analogs

Model policy intended to define and prohibit the production of designer drugs and allow emergency scheduling of analogs to avoid an imminent hazard to public safety, while permitting legitimate scientific research to continue.

 


Criminal justice system

Initial detention and initial court hearings (intercept 2)

Read more

Screening for mental and substance use disorders

National Commission on Correctional Health Care, 2018

Standards on Mental Health Screening and Evaluation (purchase required)

Experts guidelines that include recommendations for managing the delivery of medical and mental health care in correctional systems. The Standards are the foundation of NCCHC’s accreditation program, and include five editions: jails, prisons, juvenile facilities, mental health services and opioid treatment programs.


Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA), 2015

Screening and Assessment of Co-occurring Disorders in the Justice System

Report that examines various evidence-based practices for screening and assessing people in the justice system who have co-occurring mental and substance use disorders, not just at initial detention, but at each stage of the criminal justice process.


Treatment Accountability for Safer Communities

National TASC model

TASC is a membership association of programs that provide assessment and case management services to individuals in the criminal justice system who are struggling with addiction. TASC has created a methodology that details critical elements for integrating criminal justice and substance use treatment systems, holding offenders and both systems accountable through the implementation of client-specific case management.


Civic Research Institute, Offender Programs Report, 2014

Considerations for Introducing SBIRT into a Jail Setting

Review of the research literature on Screening, Brief Intervention and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT) as an evidence-based practice for reducing alcohol and other drug use in criminal justice settings.

For more resources on Screening, Brief Intervention and Referral to Treatment (SBIRT), see the Addiction Evidence Project resource page on prevention, treatment and recovery.


Pretrial diversion

The University of Chicago, Center for Data Science and Public Policy

Data-Driven Justice Initiative: Identifying Frequent Users of Multiple Public Systems for More Effective Early Assistance 

Data-matching program to identify individuals at-risk of crisis or involvement with criminal justice based on past interactions and to provide them with preventive services.


Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA), 2015

Municipal Courts: An Effective Tool for Diverting People with Mental and Substance Use Disorders from the Criminal Justice System 

Report that examines the opportunities and challenges associated with municipal court diversion for people living with mental illness and substance use disorder conditions. It outlines elements for effective diversion, recovery-based engagement strategies, and proportional response.


Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA), 2005

Substance Abuse Treatment for Adults in the Criminal Justice System: A Treatment Improvement Protocol (TIP) 44
Chapter 7: Treatment Issues in Pretrial and Diversion Settings

Expert consensus statement with treatment recommendations and best practice guidelines to counselors and administrators covering the full range of criminal justice settings and all the phases through which an individual progresses in the criminal justice system.


University of Pennsylvania Law School, Legal Scholarship Repository, 2017

Bail Reform: New Directions for Pretrial Detention and Release

Article that identifies eight pretrial strategies that are supported by research evidence and are within the authority of state policymakers. The article also calls for careful design and evaluation of these strategies as they are implemented by states.


National Institute of Corrections

Pretrial Resources Guide

Interactive website that includes a library of resources on pretrial diversion.

Jails and courts (intercept 3)

Read more

 

Sentencing reform

Sentencing reform is a topic of much debate across the U.S. However, there is limited information available on which set of sentencing guidelines leads to the best outcomes for offenders, victims and communities. Data collection and evaluation should be prioritized in order to assess whether criminal sentencing laws are effective at the state level.


United States Sentencing Commission, 2018

2018 Guidelines Manual

Manual containing final amendments to the federal sentencing guidelines, which were submitted to Congress on April 30, 2018 (effective November 1, 2018). The goal of the guidelines is to further the basic purposes of criminal punishment: deterrence, incapacitation, just punishment, and rehabilitation.


New York University School of Law Brennan Center for Justice, 2015

What Caused the Crime Decline?

Report analyzing the factors that led to the decline in crime in the U.S. in recent decades, including criminal sentencing and social, economic, and environmental factors, such as growth in income and an aging population.


Specialized dockets

National Association of Drug Court Professionals, 2018

Adult Drug Court Best Practice Standards

Evidence-based standards developed by a committee of national experts on a variety of topics relevant to drug courts, including equity and inclusion, roles and responsibilities of judges, substance use disorder treatment, multidisciplinary teams, and monitoring and evaluation.


Office of the Surgeon General, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2016

Facing Addiction in America
Chapter 4: Early Intervention, Treatment and Management of Substance Use Disorders

Summarizes research findings on the effectiveness of treatment interventions and services, including in drug courts.


American University Bureau of Justice Assistance Drug Court Technical Assistance Project, 2014

A Technical Assistance Guide for Drug Court Judges on Drug Court Treatment Services

Technical guide for newly assigned drug court judges to become familiar with the key elements and evidence-based practices that should be reflected in the treatment services provided to drug court participants.


National Institute of Justice Office of Justice Programs, 2014

Multisite Adult Drug Court Evaluation

Evaluation of nearly 1,800 drug courts from eight states (Florida, Georgia, Illinois, New York, Pennsylvania, North Carolina, South Carolina and Washington) using five-year longitudinal process, impact and cost data from adult treatment drug court programs.


National Institute of Justice Office of Justice Programs, 2014

Drug Court Performance Measures, Program Evaluation and Cost Efficiency – Logic Model for Adult Drug Courts

Logic model for adult drug court programs to assist drug court administrators and their partners in examining the performance of their drug courts. The logic model helps to clarify the best way to use resources and what long- and short-term outcomes drug court teams should consider measuring.


National Clearinghouse for Veterans Treatment Courts at the National Association of Drug Court Professionals, 2008

The Ten Key Components for Veterans Treatment Court

Consensus recommendations on best practices for administering veterans’ treatment courts. 


Bureau of Justice Assistance and the Council of State Governments Justice Center, 2007

Improving Responses to People with Mental Illnesses: The Essential Elements of a Mental Health Court

Consensus recommendations on best practices for administering mental health courts.


Bureau of Justice Assistance and the National Association of Drug Court Professionals, 2004

Defining Drug Courts: The Key Components

Consensus recommendations on best practices for administering drug courts.


National Drug Court Resource Center, 2012

Seven Program Design Features: Adult Drug Court Principles, Research, and Practice

Report identifying evidence-based components of successful drug court programming that may be used by program grant applicants and other stakeholders to design more effective programs.


The President’s Commission on Combating Drug Addiction and The Opioid Crisis, 2017

Final Report of the President’s Commission on Combating Drug Addiction and The Opioid Crisis

Report that provides recommendations to the President on ways to combat the addiction crisis, including recommendations related to reducing the illicit drug supply, expanding drug courts and investing in evidence-based addiction treatment for communities and within the criminal justice system.


The National Center for Addiction and Substance Abuse, 2017

Ending the Opioid Crisis: A Practical Guide for State Policymakers

Specific recommendations for state policymakers to prevent opioid misuse and addiction, reduce overdose deaths, improve addiction treatment and improve addiction care in the criminal justice system, including drug courts.


What Works for Health, County Health Rankings and Roadmaps

What Works for Health

Searchable database of evidence-based policies and programs. Rates strength of evidence of effectiveness (scientifically supported, some evidence, expert opinion, insufficient evidence, mixed evidence, evidence of ineffectiveness). Includes drug courts.


National Institute of Justice

Crime Solutions

Searchable database of evidence-based policies and programs. Rates strength of evidence of effectiveness (effective, promising or no effects). Includes relevant topics such as corrections and reentry, courts, crime and crime prevention, drugs and substance abuse, juveniles and law enforcement.


Washington State Institute for Public Policy

Washington State Institute for Public Policy Benefit-Cost Results

Literature reviews and benefit-cost analyses of a wide variety of health and human services programs, including drug courts and drug offender sentencing alternative programs.


Addiction treatment in prisons and jails

National Institute on Drug Abuse, 2017

Treating Opioid Addiction in Criminal Justice Settings 

Policy brief addressing the outcomes and myths of providing medication assisted treatment to people with a substance use disorder while they are in jail or prison.


Office of the Surgeon General, U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2016

Facing Addiction in America
Chapter 4: Early Intervention, Treatment and Management of Substance Use Disorders

Summarizes research findings on the effectiveness of treatment interventions and services, including in prison and other criminal justice settings.


American Society of Addiction Medicine, 2015

National Practice Guideline for the Use of Medications in the Treatment of Addiction Involving Opioid Use

Guidance for clinicians, developed by an independent committee of experts, on the appropriate and effective use of medications (methadone, buprenorphine/Suboxone, naltrexone/Vivitrol) and psychosocial methods to evaluate and treat opioid use disorder and opioid overdose, including recommendation specific to individuals in the criminal justice system.


American Correctional Association and American Society of Addiction and Medicine, 2018

Joint Public Correctional Policy Statement on the Treatment of Opioid Use Disorders for Justice Involved Individuals

Policy statement from experts in the criminal justice system and addiction treatment containing recommendations specific to the needs of correctional policymakers and healthcare professionals in order to provide evidence-based care to those in their custody or under their supervision that have opioid use disorders.


National Institute of Drug Abuse, 2018

Principles of Drug Addiction Treatment: A Research-Based Guide (Third Edition)

Report that catalogues the evidence-based approaches to addiction treatment, including pharmacotherapies and behavioral therapies, for individuals inside and outside the criminal justice system.


National Sheriffs’ Association and National Commission on Correctional Health Care, 2018

Jail-Based Medication-Assisted Treatment: Promising Practices, Guidelines, and Resources for the Field

Practice guidelines for prisons to utilize when implementing Medication-Assisted Treatment (MAT), including screening, withdrawal management, types of MAT, dosage, inclusion of counseling and support services and specialized services for pregnant women.


Federal Bureau of Prisons

Clinical Practice Guidelines
The Attorney General and the Secretary of Health and Human Services are required to provide guidelines for infectious disease prevention, detection and treatment of inmates and correctional employees who face exposure to infectious diseases in correctional facilities. Clinical practice guidelines are available for:


National Institute of Drug Abuse, 2014

Principles of Drug Abuse Treatment for Criminal Justice Populations

Report describing the treatment principles and research findings that have particular relevance to the criminal justice community and to treatment professionals working with drug abusing offenders, distilled into 13 essential principles.


Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA), 2005

Substance Abuse Treatment for Adults in the Criminal Justice System: A Treatment Improvement Protocol (TIP) 44
Chapter 8: Treatment Issues Specific to Jails and Chapter 9: Treatment Issues Specific to Prisons

Expert consensus statement with treatment recommendations and best practice guidelines to counselors and administrators covering the full range of criminal justice settings and all the phases through which an individual progresses in the criminal justice system.


The President’s Commission on Combating Drug Addiction and The Opioid Crisis, 2017

Final Report of the President’s Commission on Combating Drug Addiction and The Opioid Crisis

Report that provides recommendations to the President on ways to combat the addiction crisis, including recommendations related to reducing the illicit drug supply, expending drug courts and investing in evidence-based addiction treatment for communities and within the criminal justice system.


The National Center for Addiction and Substance Abuse, 2010

Behind Bars II: Substance Abuse and America’s Prison Population

Report that provides analysis of the extent to which alcohol and other drugs are implicated in the crimes and incarceration of America’s prison population and recommendations for the criminal justice system and federal, state and local governments.


Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA), U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2004

Clinical Guidelines for the Use of Buprenorphine in the Treatment of Opioid Addiction: A Treatment Improvement Protocol
Detailed best-practice guidelines, developed by a consensus panel, to inform the use of buprenorphine in opioid addiction treatment in all settings, including the criminal justice system.


The National Center for Addiction and Substance Abuse, 2017

Ending the Opioid Crisis: A Practical Guide for State Policymakers

Specific recommendations for state policymakers to prevent opioid misuse and addiction, reduce overdose deaths, improve addiction treatment and improve addiction care in the criminal justice system, including providing evidence-based treatment in prisons and jails.


National Institute of Justice

Crime Solutions

Searchable database of evidence-based policies and programs. Rate strength of evidence of effectiveness (effective, promising or no effects). Includes relevant topics such as corrections and reentry, courts, crime and crime prevention, drugs and substance abuse, juveniles and law enforcement.


Washington State Institute for Public Policy

Washington State Institute for Public Policy Benefit-Cost Results

Literature reviews and benefit-cost analyses of a wide variety of health and human services programs, including inpatient and outpatient drug treatment during incarceration, case management for drug-involved persons in the criminal justice system, outpatient or non-intensive drug treatment in the community and therapeutic communities in the community.


U.S. Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention

Model Programs Guide

Searchable database of evidence-based juvenile justice and youth prevention, intervention, and reentry policies and programs. Rates strength of evidence of effectiveness (effective, promising or no effects).

Reentry (intercept 4)

Read more

Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2016

Reentry Resources for Individuals, Providers, Communities and States 

A SAMHSA key issues guide providing resources for individuals returning from jails and prisons, behavioral health providers and criminal justice practitioners, communities and local jurisdictions, and state policymakers to support re-entry.


Addiction Science and Clinical Practice, 2009

Interventions to Promote Successful Re-Entry Among Drug-Abusing Parolees 

A meta-analysis which outlines various strategies and methods that should be employed in corrections facilities to promote successful re-entry for people who use drugs.


American Correctional Association and American Society of Addiction and Medicine, 2018

Joint Public Correctional Policy Statement on the Treatment of Opioid Use Disorders for Justice Involved Individuals

Policy statement from experts in the criminal justice system and addiction treatment containing recommendations specific to the needs of correctional policymakers and healthcare professionals in order to provide evidence-based care to those in their custody or under their supervision that have opioid use disorders.


U.S. Department of Justice, 2016

Roadmap to Reentry: Reducing Recidivism through Reentry Reforms at the Federal Bureau of Prisons

Report that identifies five evidence-based principles guiding federal efforts to improve the correctional practices and programs that impact the lives of those who will reenter society after incarceration, including connecting formerly incarcerated people with substance use and mental health treatment.


National Reentry Resource Center, 2018

Best Practices for Successful Reentry for People Who Have Opioid Addictions

Report that describes the best practices that correctional, community-based behavioral health, and probation and parole agencies can implement to ensure that reentry for people who have opioid addictions is safe and successful, including behavioral health treatment and recovery support services in the community.


The Commonwealth Fund, 2019

State Strategies for Establishing Connections to Health Care for Justice-Involved Populations: The Central Role of Medicaid

Literature review identifying emerging trends in state Medicaid programs, including data exchange to ensure providers are notified when someone is leaving jail or prison; “in-reach” to help establish relationships between people leaving incarceration and primary care providers prior to release; strategies for addressing housing issues and other social determinants of health; and use of peer-support specialists who have experiences with incarceration.


National Reentry Resource Center, 2017

Critical Connections: Getting People Leaving Prison and Jail the Mental Health Care and Substance Use Treatment They Need

Discussion paper that identifies key issues for policymakers to consider when seeking to facilitate easier access to mental health and substance use treatment for people leaving prison and jail and help reduce recidivism as part of a comprehensive reentry effort.


Center for Medicaid and CHIP Services, Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS), U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, 2016

Best Practices for Addressing Prescription Opioid Overdoses, Misuse and Addiction (information bulletin for state Medicaid programs)
Describes Medicaid pharmacy benefit management strategies for mitigating prescription drug abuse and addresses strategies state Medicaid programs can take to increase provision of naloxone for individuals leaving prison and jail.


Ohio Department of Rehabilitation and Correction, Ohio Institute on Correctional Best Practices, 2008

Best Practices Tool-Kit: Family Involvement During Incarceration and Reentry

Report that systematically identifies empirical evidence regarding strategies, programs and practices geared towards involving offenders’ families during incarceration and reentry. The objective is to provide information that will better inform policymakers, practitioners and researchers on maintaining and strengthening appropriate family relationships during incarceration and community reintegration.


Washington State Institute for Public Policy

Washington State Institute for Public Policy Benefit-Cost Results

Literature reviews and benefit-cost analyses of a wide variety of health and human services programs, including the Serious and Violent Offender Reentry Initiative (SVORI).


National Institute of Justice

Crime Solutions

Searchable database of evidence-based policies and programs. Rates strength of evidence of effectiveness (effective, promising or no effects). Includes relevant topics such as corrections and reentry, courts, crime and crime prevention, drugs and substance abuse, juveniles and law enforcement.


Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention

Model Programs Guide

Searchable database of evidence-based juvenile justice and youth prevention, intervention, and reentry policies and programs. Rates strength of evidence of effectiveness (effective, promising or no effects).


The National Center for Addiction and Substance Abuse, 2017

Ending the Opioid Crisis: A Practical Guide for State Policymakers

Specific recommendations for state policymakers to prevent opioid misuse and addiction, reduce overdose deaths, improve addiction treatment and improve addiction care in the criminal justice system, including providing connections to treatment and support services upon reentry.

Community corrections (intercept 5)

Read more

Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA), 2005

Substance Abuse Treatment for Adults in the Criminal Justice System: A Treatment Improvement Protocol (TIP) 44

Chapter 10: Treatment for Offenders Under Community Supervision

Expert consensus statement with treatment recommendations and best practice guidelines to counselors and administrators covering the full range of criminal justice settings and all the phases through which an individual progresses in the criminal justice system.


University of Minnesota Robin Institute of Criminal Law and Criminal Justice, 2018

Modernizing Parole Statutes: Guidance from Evidence-Based Practice

Report for state policymakers and paroling authorities with recommendations focused on the parole decision-making process, post-release supervision conditions, and the administration of the paroling authority, which include connections to addiction treatment.


Pew Charitable Trusts and the Laura and John Arnold Foundation, 2018

Probation and Parole Systems Marked by High Stakes, Missed Opportunities

Analysis of research on probation and parole systems that identifies policy gaps and evidence-based strategies to enhance public safety, decrease drug misuse and reduce incarceration.


Rutgers Center for Behavioral Health Services Criminal Justice Research, 2013

Halfway from Prison to the Community: From Current Practice to Best Practice

Report that provides a framework and guidelines for the structure, implementation, and evaluation of residential reentry centers (also known as halfway houses). Recommendations focus on improving the performance and effectiveness of these centers and improving contracting for services in the community.


Council of State Governments Justice Center, 2012

Adults with Behavioral Health Needs under Correctional Supervision: A Shared Framework for Reducing Recidivism and Promoting Recovery

Report for policymakers, administrators, and service providers in the criminal justice system that introduces an evidence-based framework for prioritizing scarce resources based on assessments of individuals’ risk of committing a future crime and their treatment and support needs.


Ohio Department of Rehabilitation and Correction, Ohio Institute on Correctional Best Practices, 2008

Best Practices Tool-Kit: Community Corrections and Evidence-Based Practices

Report that identifies the principles of effective intervention drawn from research and how that translates into effective practice in community corrections. The objective is to inform policymakers, practitioners and researchers on the utilization of evidence-based practices in community corrections.

For evidence on effective addiction treatment, such as treatment that is provided in community drug treatment programs, see the Addiction Evidence Project resource page on prevention, treatment and recovery.


 

Last updated 8.27.2021